Quantifying Connectivity Challenges

Thursday, February 18, 2021  •  Episode 21

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It's widely known that rural connectivity is a major problem for rural residents and for the progression of digital agriculture technologies. But how big of an issue is it? Keenan McRoberts, Ph.D., Vice President of Science and Program Strategy for the United Soybean Board joins this episode of the FarmBits podcast to discuss the outcomes of a 2018 study titled "Rural Broadband and the American Farmer: Connectivity Challenges Limit Agriculture's Economic Impact and Sustainability." As Keenan will discuss in this episode, the United Soybean Board views their investment in this study and the rural broadband initiative in general as catalytic in nature. The information provided in this study and through ongoing investments by the United Soybean Board is intended to enable better decision making, public-private partnerships, and effective investments in rural connectivity. There is still much to be done to achieve the connected future that many in the agricultural industry believe is possible and the United Soybean Board is committed to playing a significant role in building that connected future. 

Opinions expressed on FarmBits are solely those of the guest(s) or host(s) and not the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

On this episode

host Samantha Teten
host Jackson Stansell
Keenan McRoberts Portrait
guest Keenan McRoberts
FarmBits Logo
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Show Notes

Read Transcript

Jackson: Welcome to the FarmBits podcast, a product of Nebraska Extension Digital Agriculture. I'm Jackson Stansell. And I'm Samantha Teten. And we come to you each week to discuss the trends, the realities and the value of digital agriculture.

Samantha: Through interviews and panels with experts, producers and innovators from all sectors of digital technology- we hope that you step away from each episode with new practical knowledge of digital agriculture technology.
Welcome back to the 21st episode of the FarmBits podcast.

Jackson: As we heard from John Fulton in episode 20, connectivity is a major issue that is limiting the progress of digital agriculture. Samantha: These connectivity issues are being prioritized by many organizations in both the private sector and public sector. One such organization is United Soybean Board.

Jackson: On this episode of the podcast, we are joined by Keenan McRoberts, the United Soybean Board's Vice President of Science and Program Strategy.

Samantha: In his position, Keenan oversees the Soy Checkoff investments across meal oil and sustainability, which includes the United Soybean Board's rural broadband project.

Jackson: One investment that the United Soybean Board made in furthering the development of rural broadband was in a 2018 study that surveyed 2000 farmers regarding their use and limitations of rural broadband.

Samantha: In this interview, Keenan will discuss the findings of this study and how that is helping to inform the United Soybean Board's investments in rural broadband and exactly what the role the united soybean board is in furthering innovations to solve real broadband challenges, so let's jump into our interview with Keenan McRoberts.

Samantha: So, can you tell us a little bit about your role and how you got there including your ties to the Cornhusker state?

Keenan: Yeah yeah, absolutely and thank you for that, it's exciting to be connecting back to the state. So, I actually grew up on a farm and ranch in Western Nebraska, north of Sidney is where the farm was and our our ranch property was was near Bridgeport. So, west of soybean and in most of corn production territory though, still agriculture was the driver of the economy obviously. So, I actually did my undergrad work at the University of Nebraska and was there and graduated in 2001 ,so it's been a few years ago but it's near and dear to my heart and obviously I'm still an avid Husker fan and and continue to track with everything going on the state both football, volleyball and all the other really cool activities that are going on out there. So, from from there I actually spent a lot of my early career overseas, served as a peace corps volunteer in Nicaragua and worked with the ministry of agriculture there as well and then bridged that to a master's in phd in international agriculture and rural development and in animal science both at Cornell university and did my work in Mexico and in Vietnam respectively. So, had that kind of trajectory related to domestic agriculture and opportunities overseas which matters especially in the soybean industry because nearly 60 percent of soybeans and soy products end up being exported. So, it's a cool industry so to bridge my background and my academic training as well as my training on the ground are very centered in really multi-disciplinary approaches to problem solving, and our investments as the United Soybean Board that cross research into promotion and try to take a holistic view as solutions that can really create that better future for the U.S. soybean farmer really positioned me well to to help lead our efforts in this area. I first came to USB to lead our soybean meal strategy and have since bridged to lead our science and program strategy team, so it's been an exciting evolution and we got a lot of cool things going today and an exciting future ahead of us on behalf of soybean farmers.

Jackson: Very cool, it's amazing how broad your experience has been i can't even imagine you know working in three different countries you know kind of in graduate work and even before that. Samantha: So, as the vice president of the science and program strategy you know, you see where these check off investments are going, including this rural broadband project that you just mentioned. What made USB decide to invest in this rural broadband project and why is it considered so important to the sustainability and soybean producers?

Keenan: Yeah, that's a great question and I'll start by saying sustainability is one of our three strategic pillars with our current strategic plan and farmers recognized early and set out to to define and lay the groundwork for the future of sustainability. So, what's that mean right? Sustainability gets thrown around a lot what it means for soybean farmers is really the three pillars of operating more economically in ways that preserve the land and create opportunities for the future and also that social sustainability component that weaves into rural communities and rural culture. And the future and important role that they play in feeding the world, so I think when we think about rural connectivity it's really critical with where we're at today. United Soybean Board has recognized how important it is to improve the efficiency and sustainability of their operations and has really invested in in key ways to address that issue. Give an example the pandemic really kind of drove this home how important it was because even with our board of 78 farmers we went from in-person meetings to 100% virtual operation right and it quickly highlighted for us that some of the innovative farmers on our board still had a lot of connectivity challenges. Maybe they had decent internet though perhaps not all that reliable in their home offices, but once they went out to the field or were out on the road often it was lost. We had board members trying to take calls from tractors and combines through the course of meetings this year and very often that resulted in an inability to participate in fulfilling their duties. It's kind of a microcosm of an example of some of the challenges that this created and it really drove home the fact that this digital divide is critical in rural areas. If you talk about the future farmer in the United States, technology and technology adoption is right at the center of it and that technology relies in most cases on good connectivity, which is undermined. We've got some data to support that from a recent study that we'll get into later, but it's really been a priority, lies at the heart of our infrastructure investments to increase understanding and then try to attract investment to resolve the problem over time.

Jackson: Yeah, I think you did a really good job of number one identifying like how exactly this connectivity gap impacts farmers, but also talking about you know why exactly it's important that the united soybean board is involved in kind of solving this gap. So, you did mention this study it was called the rural broadband in the American farmers study. Can we kind of get into into that study a little bit now and talk about some of the key findings that were in that study?

Keenan: Yeah, absolutely so this study was commissioned a couple years ago in 2018 really to better understand how and why farmers currently access the internet and how they get connected both their purposes at home as well as in the office and you think about all the on-farm decisions that are informed and rely on that connectivity that was the purpose of it to understand is it a limitation, how great is that limitation and how expansive is it and this wasn't limited just to soybean farmers it extended into really U.S. agriculture more broadly. So, the study really showed that the lack of connectivity in rural areas takes a significant toll on U.S. farmers and on the economy approximately 60% percent of farmers said they did not have enough connectivity to run their businesses effectively so over half, which is significant right. (absolutely) The study also indicated that farmers who lack the connectivity to run their operations are responsible for approximately 80 billion of the U.S. GDP. So, it's also a very large monetary value that is an opportunity and should attract some investment because should it be addressed effectively it creates an opportunity for the economy as well as potentially an opportunity for tech providers to operate in that space. Another one, 78% of the farmers and ranchers interviewed do not have a viable option to change internet service providers, or they don't have connectivity options. So, it's really being price takers or market takers rather than being able to go out and seek alternatives, if the current one is not working for them sure the study also highlighted that most farmers plan on and it's 59% of farmers or are considering incorporating more data into their day-to-day decisions within the next year. So, if you extend that to a decade down the road that number probably goes to almost 100 percent of those that would prefer to use data that requires connectivity on a day-to-day basis. So, that's what we have to plan for. Ee need to plan for 100 percent coverage not 29 right so those that face internet related barriers just a few highlighting further a few of the what those barriers consist of many cited slow speeds, dropped connections cost being a prohibitor to adoption, reliability and lack of access. Nearly a third of those interviewed of the 2000 that were interviewed indicated that internet connectivity has impacted their purchase decisions to upgrade farm equipment. And that's significant right because if you're deciding today not to invest in something that has that technology you're making a decision that affects your farm for a number of years down the road, so that's a real limitation to broader uptake even if you know connectivity were to be improved in the next year because you got to wait for the equipment turnover as well and it's a little bit of a lag effect on adoption and implementation. Basically farmers needs for technology are projected to grow that's a critical outcome here. We've got to think about the future, we've reinforced that numerous times and I want to mention there's a difference between connectivity in the office or at the home and in the field and you think of what is the modern technological firm that's got all the bells and whistles, the office really is the the tracker of the combine right? Your ability to do work while you're in the field becomes pivotal to day-to-day productivity and business management. So, even if you have connectivity at home, if that doesn't extend to the full extent of your property then you're not necessarily in a better situation, if you are seeking to adopt some of the latest technology. So those are a couple high-level numbers there's a few others, but what I really want to underscore technology plays an integral role in every aspect of most farm operations. Modern technology tends to require connectivity to get into the internet of things and a lot of what drives everything that we all do on a day-to-day basis including farmers especially those that have connectivity and are able to adopt the latest technology. Precision agriculture and other on-farm technology enhancements allow farmers to grow more food more efficiently and that is central. It is an essential service during the pandemic right, so we recognized that you know regardless of what's going on out there we've got to still be able to feed the population and as an essential service that further underscores just how important connectivity is to realizing those efficiencies. One thing I'll add here USDA announced last year the agriculture innovation agenda. Are you two familiar with with that announcement at all? There were two overarching goals one was to increase productivity, increase agricultural productivity or production by by 40 percent by 2050 and the other was to reduce the environmental footprint by 40 by 2050. Both of those really require on this adoption of modern technology to continue to achieve the type of gains that we've experienced historically that are more dependent upon technology today than they ever have been.

Samantha: Sure and yeah this you know study that you just mentioned we have read through that and we highly encourage our listeners to take a glance through that because the statistics are phenomenal of where we're currently at, and you just were mentioning this a little bit of like where we're going but can you talk about how is this challenge holding us back from advancing agriculture? So, are some farmers not adopting some things that is on the market just because they don't have the connectivity?

Keenan: Yeah, that's absolutely a possibility and you think whether it's the ability to place a timely phone call you have a cell connection or whether it's internet and the various forms that connectivity comes in. I think a lot of it's around access to information as well as enabling technology so access to information could be market information, could be weather information, could be the ability to reach out to an equipment provider in a timely fashion or get support with someone that's not working in the field and get timely solutions to those problems all of which are hindered without it. So, it's kind of interweaves through everything that farmers need to do on a day-to-day basis. You don't have that connectivity you know I think of when I was growing up in Western Nebraska, if we had a problem had to drive at least 20 miles and it was going to take at least two hours to see if there was even a possible solution on the horizon and many parts of the country are still in that same condition, especially in rural areas.

Jackson: Yeah yeah, I think that really does underscore and one thing that I don't think we can take too lightly is that access to information right. I think that's an important thing to pull out, and I know as University Extension you know as part of what led us to start this podcast is trying to provide you know new ways of people accessing information when we can't have these in-person field days, and so I think we've been impacted by that a little bit as well on our end.

Keenan: Yeah, absolutely absolutely and I'm a huge advocate for the land grant, the extension system. I think it's been really a landmark model that many parts of the world have tried to replicate including some of the places I mentioned earlier where I've worked, and it plays an important role here and it's interesting to see how the extension education networks have adapted to virtual conditions and need to continue to and all that relies on technology right. That also relies on connectivity without which you know if you can't get to the folks that need it then you've got a problem.

Samantha: So, thinking about all the research that you guys have done and you know the publication that you put out how what other education techniques or how else are you sharing this data with people and why is that education piece so important?
Keenan: Yeah, so the the education component is essential our marketing communication and communication team at the United Soybean Board plays a critical role in ensuring that this information gets out and gets out broadly. In addition to that, partnering with with land grant universities and with other partners in the private and public sector to disseminate this information, increase awareness and format discussions about how we need to collectively work together to address it is essential, and I think as much in this space as any other and perhaps more partnerships are really critical here in partnerships across that public and private sector. So, we're doing everything we can to promote the results of this study and build on it to get the word out there further and get that information into the right hands that can enable some decisions and some investment that might not have occurred otherwise.

Jackson: Sure so, once that information kind of gets out there to agricultural communities or these stakeholders and these systems- what is one thing or maybe several things that you would like to see those stakeholders kind of contribute to continuing to to promote rural broadband as a priority for the public and private sectors?

Keenan: Yeah, I think really talking to farmers and understanding their perspective and their needs both today and into the future. What they want to grow toward and how the technology can grow with them is essential and you know farmers collectively have a strong voice going back again to that economic opportunity that comes along with the gap, the digital divide that we need to bridge here that farmer collective voice can help ensure that we're addressing those challenges in a way that represents their best interest longer term. So, talking to farmers and getting the farmer voice out there is critical to everything we do and I think that's an important part of the the landscape here as well.

Jackson: Absolutely, so we've kind of heard about you know how much of an issue it is, and now I'd rather kind of drive our conversation the direction of how exactly you are investing right now to kind of address the issue and maybe you could even get into your partnership with the Benton Institute for Broadband and society kind of talking about your investments.

Keenan: Yeah, sure thing so this study that we cited was really the foundation kind of the starting point the baseline for where we're at today and as you mentioned before definitely encourage folks to take a look at some of the statistics there and I think that baseline highlighted a number of different things. One is that we still really have a pasty of data around the challenges faced more broadly in geographically in rural areas, so we still need more information to inform the future here and studies like this can highlight the nature of the challenge and broad strokes but we need to go deeper we need to understand the geospatial challenges and try to seek solutions that are outside the box to address that. I think another piece that the study really highlighted relates to that financial opportunity here, an attracting investment could be an important outcome over the next five to ten years that can help address it because you know in order to improve connectivity you've got to get the technology access in place whether it be through satellite traditional providers or through high-speed cellular connection. So, that technological investment by the private sector is absolutely critical. So, where's USB going next, we've continued our work with the Benton Institute for Technology in the current year in our fiscal year 2021 and the current study is is really building on the foundation to tackle some next steps with the goal of producing principles and backgrounds and broadband solutions that demonstrate the closing the current broadband gap will increase agricultural productivity and sustainability kind of back to that previous point that we highlighted with USDA. So, there's a few things that it's focusing on. The benton institute is facilitating a discussion around key connectivity challenges facing American farmers around broadband performance requirements that farmers need over the next decade, and I think that's important right so we're not just looking backward, we're looking forward over the next decade and even beyond, what do we need and you think about you buy a new laptop today it's already obsolete, and connection speed and connectivity faces some of those similar challenges because you know if you get 4G into a rural area well now we're on 5G and 5G plus, so you're still behind the curve because the latest equipment's going to rely on 5G right. So, you got to be ahead of it you've got to be thinking toward where the skating to where the puck's going to be in 10-15 years rather than where it is today. So, that's part of what Benton is facilitating. The other piece is current landscape for available governmental and non-governmental resources to address this challenge. Building on the foundation the study that USB led as well as some of the other efforts that are out there. The effort is also seeking to enlist agricultural leaders in a common set of principles into secure agreement to work together on rural connectivity through the course of the current year project and beyond. It includes further outreach to ag leaders and to other broadband leaders in the industry and then finally understanding the challenges faced by farmers really has four key components to it and this is central to the current effort with the institute. One is deployment- how to get broadband into areas where there isn't currently adequate connectivity, competition- how to bring choices to the landscape especially to farmers but more broadly into rural areas and more comprehensively across across the U.S. Adoption and affordability, so access isn't necessarily enough right if it's so expensive that your typical farmer and rancher can't adopt the technology then you're in the same place you were before, and then finally community institutions, I talked about social being one of the sustainability pillars looking at how community institutions like schools, libraries and hospitals can really be launching pads for rural connectivity, and I think that's essential because it gets to the how do we train the the next generation of leaders in rural areas as well as bridging some of those public services to help the farming community and ensure that they have greater access than they could have otherwise, especially during the gap period when it still may remain inadequate on their farm.

Jackson: Absolutely, so I guess one other question that I wanted to ask you is you've mentioned many times how this study has kind of laid a foundation and it's an initial investment that you're hoping you know grows into something much bigger do you have any examples of how you know the United Soybean Board's investments and projects like this foundational projects can turn into you know giant returns at the end for its stakeholders?

Keenan: Yeah, that's a great question, so we think of our investments as catalytic in nature, so either laying foundations or being that initial you can think of it like an angel funder what starts the process what can get the ball rolling and a catalytic investment in this space can attract attention really bring further investment and partnerships from the the public and the private sector. An example of that is our foundational work to understand the impact of further dredging the Mississippi River that has informed and brought millions of dollars to the table to undertake that effort and that foundational study was the critical catalytic component to moving that forward. So, we think of rural broadband in a similar light. It can help solve a problem throughout rural areas in America and we can play an important critical catalytic role in initiating the process and bringing the partners to the table. So, that's a fundamental role the check off, we'll continue doing it and we're really excited about the the potential outcomes in this space to improve rural connectivity.

Samantha: Yeah, I love how you guys' research is really focusing on the future and you know making sure that we're capable for what is developing and thinking about our farmer demographic as well I mean everyone talks about how our farming generation is getting older but they're also a lot more educated a lot more getting degrees and things like that how is that influencing this demand for this rural connectivity and how did that influence what you guys were doing?

Keenan: Yeah so, I'm glad you brought that up. The education is absolutely critical and that critical and that's not just access to information or education for farmers themselves it's for the next generation of leadership and you know you think about the area where I grew up in Western Nebraska. Most folks that went on to get beyond a bachelor's degree don't end up returning to the farm right so that's also a limitation where the latest and greatest technology and folks that are going on to get higher degrees are not necessarily attracted to go back to the farm because they can't necessarily work with the technology that they were exposed to. So, I think that's part of it as well is attracting folks back to rural areas or as the world future prize referred to it a few years ago making agriculture sexy. Technology is fundamental to making that happen to attracting the the latest and greatest minds as well as technologies back to to to the areas where they originated from and I think that is critical to the future of rural areas.

Jackson: Absolutely.

Keenan: So, the other side of that is the extension education component and so United Soybean Board invests in a lot of research, a lot of best management practices that really the end game is to get it into farmer's hands to either help them make better decisions or to implement best management practices and delivering that education both ourselves and through our various means like the soybean research information network, for example requires good access to internet and and similar to the challenges that you all have faced with extension education at the University of Nebraska and other places throughout the country land grants and the private sector with their extension services it all comes back to connectivity whether it be phone whether it be internet or whether it be other forms. So, without it you know we're kind of dead in the water especially in a pandemic.

Jackson: Yeah yeah, I think you know you brought up people returning to communities. I'm just thinking with all this remote work that kind of you know connectivity is enabling they're gonna be more people that I think are gonna be looking into coming out to rural areas and living, and I think having that technology there is going to be a crucial component to making sure we maximize that opportunity.

Samantha: It sounds like you know the United Soybean Board, you guys really have an understanding of how important this is and kind of where things need to go, but what's your perception of the public sector as a whole or maybe even the private sector is there a great understanding from some of these other areas of the limitations of rural broadband?

Keenan: Yeah, I believe that the study that the United Soybean Board led has highlighted that we still don't have enough information that further investment and better understand that landscape is essential and that's an effort that the public sector can lead ideally in partnership with the private sector, so that we're you know we're not trying to just push it into the market if the right partners are at the table and part of the discussion from the get-go we're more likely to achieve a commercially viable solution or set thereof right because it definitely won't be a one-size-fits-all approach. We absolutely have to lay that groundwork and demonstrate the opportunity to the private sector to those commercial partners to then build on it, explore the broader value proposition and then try to bring it to market in a way that fits the that creates solutions that fit for everyone. So, really seeking a win-win and I think that win-win is out there, but fomenting those public/ private conversations early is absolutely critical and we're already doing that at USB, and I think many other partners in the space are as well.

Jackson: So, you've talked about kind of the technology and the private sector a few times now and how investment from the private sector is going to be so critical to kind of solving these challenges. What are some ways of the United Soybean Board or I guess what are some technologies the USB has identified as being really high potential technologies out there- like you mentioned satellites and I think that's one that I've seen to be a pretty high potential one myself.

Keenan: So, yeah you know it's it's ironic because I f I go back to my days working as an agricultural extensionist in Nicaragua, many peace corps workers had satellite phones in rural communities where they wouldn't have otherwise had any access and this has you know been 20 years right. You know, at that time that was enabling access for emergency situations and it's become more viable today as the distribution of satellite networks and the private players have expanded in that area. So, I think there's potential we don't know how well it's going to work yet and it may not work in every area, but we're we're in some early discussions with potential partners in that area to explore some pilot projects and see the extent to which it might be a viable solution. Beyond that, you know I think traditional providers as well you think of the Microsoft, you know ATT, Verizon and the set of other private companies that are either providing cellular networks or rural broadband or other forms of connectivity are absolutely essential partners in this space because they work together to sort of interweave and interlock what will hopefully be an effective, much more effective coverage ten years from now than what it is today.

Samantha: So, continuing to look into the future what do you envision to be the ideal path to improve this rural broadband issue quickly or as quickly as possible?

Keenan: Yeah, that's a great question and I think it's open to debate, but attracting investment is critical getting through this pilot phase, demonstrating that the model can work, highlighting those case studies for regions where a solution is already in place and seeking to build on it are essential. And, I think working working with a variety of folks across ag you know an important piece here with U.S. agriculture, it's not just about U.S. soybean farmers or U.S. corn farmers or cattle ranchers, but this matters to all of us right and so we got to work together. It's really a pre-competitive issue that can get this enabling technology into hands and ensuring that discussions around adoption of the latest technology to improve productivity and increase sustainability outcomes is even a possibility. So, I don't know if I have an exact roadmap, but I think there are some key components there that highlight essential steps that need to be achieved to get to at least bridge part of the digital divide gap that we've identified.

Samantha: Are there any resources that you recommend to our listeners to learn more about the United Soybean Board and what you guys are doing, we've heard about your podcast the Tech Tool Shed any other resources that you recommend?
Keenan: Yeah, I'd say visit our website unitedsoybean.org as well as ussoy.org both of which contain a lot of information for for different audiences related to the latest and greatest check off investments and much of what we're doing to to create a better future for U.S. soybean farmers and for U.S. agriculture.
Jackson: Do you have any last advice for our our listeners to kind of make the most of of their soybean checkoff dollars or even if you know they want to just get more involved in the rural broadband issue, do you have any advice for how they can do that? Keenan: Yeah absolutely, please reach out to us. I'd love to have the conversation and love to talk about how our investments on your behalf can best serve your needs, so don't hesitate to pick up the phone or give us a call, visit the website and look forward to speaking with you.
Jackson: Thank you to Keenan McRoberts from the United Soybean Board for joining us today to discuss their research on the rural broadband project. So, when I think about this episode and what we what out of this episode, I thought one of the really interesting things that Keenan said was that the study that they completed is actually enabling information that is a foundation for generating investment and progress in the space, so they really see it as a catalytic investment that's going to enable a lot of private sector companies and or you know public/private partnerships or even public sector you know decisions that are going to help enable rural broadband development, and I just think that's a really interesting role for the United Soybean Board to play, and I think it's a really good way to use checkoff dollars in a way that's really going to benefit farmers in the long run.
Samantha: Absolutely, you think about how valuable this study and data is and if it was done by anybody else it may not have been so publicly shared, and just the value in that or like he said to be a catalyst, that's awesome to hear about, so. My favorite part was learning about how this rural connectivity and how important that is just for like the rural resiliency, so if you think about these all these small towns in Nebraska how do we get people to want to move back or how do we create opportunities for people and that all centers around connectivity and it's not just you know it is important for Zoom calls or emails and things like that, but it's also important for our equipment technology, but also you know we've talked about this direct-consumer marketing and so that's really important in the rural connectivity space as well in creating those opportunities.
Jackson: Yeah, I think there's a lot to be seen here, and we'll see exactly where rural broadband goes. I think we're all pretty optimistic about where it's going to go, but there's a lot of stuff that needs to be done in order to get there.
Samantha: Absolutely, and so building on that of where we're going with this with the FarmBits podcast next week we'll be having a discussion with Ranveer Chandra, the lead developer of Microsoft's FarmBeats, for an episode that you will not want to miss.
Samantha: Thank you for taking the time to join us today on the FarmBits podcast. If you enjoyed this episode, please subscribe to the podcast on Spotify, Apple Podcast, YouTube or wherever you listen to podcasts to be informed about the latest content each week.
Jackson: We welcome your feedback, so if you have comments or questions for us please reach out to us over email, on Twitter or in the reviews section of your favorite podcast platform. Our contact information can be found in the show notes.
Samantha: We'd like to thank Nebraska Extension for their support of this podcast and their commitment to providing high quality informational material to the members of the agricultural community in Nebraska and beyond.
Jackson: The opinions expressed by the hosts and guests on this podcast are solely their own and do not reflect reviews of Nebraska Extension or the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
Samantha: We look forward to joining us next week for another episode of FarmBits.

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